A short review of an article Kirchhofer KC, Zimmermann F, Kaminski J, Tomasello M (2012) Dogs (Canis familiaris), but Not Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Understand Imperative Pointing by P. Urbanczyk.

## Neuroscientific approach to third party punishment.

Recenty, via Vanderbilt University research news site, some news about neuroscientifical approach to the third part punishment issue was published. As we can read:

In a paper published online on April 15 by the journal

Nature Neuroscience, a pair of neuroscientists from Vanderbilt and Harvard universities has proposed the first neurobiological model for third-party punishment. It outlines a collection of potential cognitive and brain processes that evolutionary pressures could have re-purposed to make this behavior possible.

The whole news along with the link to the paper is here.

## O. D. Jones, Behavioral Genetics and Crime, in Context, Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69, pp. 81-100, 2006.

We warmly invite you to pursue the short review of the paper *Behavioral Genetics and Crime, in Context *by O. D. Jones

The review is available here.

## B. Garland, Mark S. Frankel, Considering convergence: a policy dialogue about behavioral genetics, neurosciences, and law, 69- SPG LAW & CONTEMP. PROBS. 101

We warmly invite you to pursue the short review of the paper *Considering convergence: a policy dialogue about behavioral genetics, neurosciences, and law *by B. Garland, M.S. Frankel.

The review is available here.

## Lori B. Andrews, J.D., Predicting and Punishing Antisocial Acts. How the Criminal Justice System Might Use Behavioral Genetics [in:] R.A. Carson, M.A. Rothstein (ed.), Behavioral Genetics – The Clash of Culture and Biology, The Johns Hopkins University Press 1999, pp. 116-156.

We warmly invite you to pursue the short review of the paper *Predicting and punishing antisocial Acts. How the Criminal Justice System Might Use Behavioral Genetics *by L. B. Andrews.

The review is available here.

## Mark A. Rothstein, J.D., Behavioral Genetic Determinism. Its Effects on Culture and Law [in:] R.A. Carson, M.A. Rothstein (ed.), Behavioral Genetics – The Clash of Culture and Biology, The Johns Hopkins University Press 1999, pp. 90-115

You can find a short review of the paper *Mark A. Rothstein, J.D., Behavioral Genetic Determinism. Its Effects on Culture and Law *here*.*

## Pei Wang “From Inheritance relation to Non Axiomatic Logic”. [International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 11(4), 281-319, 1994]

Text:

Pei Wang “From Inheritance relation to Non Axiomatic Logic”. [International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 11(4), 281-319, 1994]

Abstract:

At the beginning of the paper, three binary term logics are defined. The first is based only on inheritance relation. This relation refers to weights between nodes of semantic network (terms). As author says the second and the third logics suggest a new way to process extension and intension. They have also interesting relations with Aristotle’s logic.

Based on the three simple systems a Non Axiomatic Logic is defined. It has term oriented language and an experience grounded semantics. It can uniformly represents and processes randomness, fuzziness and ignorance. It can also uniformly carries out deduction, abduction, induction and revision.

Commentary:

The proposed paper is a good start for Pei Wang works relating to cognitive logic. Cognitive logic claims to be an underlying logic for reasoning resulting from physical properties of neural networks (human mind). The work and underlying idea of Wang’s papers is an interesting piece which may be an important contribution for many methodology issues, like normative methodology. The paper may be helpful for understanding why the axiomatic logic seems to be a good methodology for normative disciplines however we have many problems with its adaptation.

## Lukasz Lazarz. Abstract: “Normative methodology (cognitive logic) in frames of Cognitive Theory of Normativity. Solution to Jorgensen’s dilemma.”

Abstract here: LLazarz. Normative methodology obi .

Instead of usual short review I attach an abstract of the paper being prepared regarding normative methodology what toghether with prior papers on theory of norms constitutes almost full theory of normativity.

The text is being prepared for Cognitive Science workshps regarding influance of modern empirical sciences on philosophy of logic taking place in Amsterdam in December this year (the paper is not approved yet).

LL

## Chaos theory in financial time series analysis – theoretical aspects and empirical researches

Krzysztof Jajuga, Daniel Papla

Dynamiczne Modele Ekonometryczne

V Ogólnopolskie Seminarium Naukowe, 9-11 września 1997 r. w Toruniu

Katedra Ekonometrii i Statystyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu

Summary

In his post-conference paper authors present the basic assumptions and methods of chaos theory that can be possibly used in market analyses. At first they place those methods among others quantity methods which have been worked out due to predict the certain market variables like price of commodities. Those are: technical analysis, stochastic methods, methods of financial cybernetic, econometric methods and chaos theory. The common feature of those methods is the abortion of the effective market hypothesis. In other words, they assume that the information of the past prices do not affect the present value.

The authors describe briefly what is deterministic chaos and what sort of mathematical methods of that theory can be applied to market analysis. Two of them are presented in details. Those are: correlative dimension and Hurst’s exponent.

At the end both methods are applied to the share prices on the Polish stock exchange within 1994 – 97. The results are ambiguous. It may suggest that there exists no attractor, what is the necessary condition to make the accurate predictions, or that the set of data is not rich enough.

They conclude that the example of stock exchange shows clearly the difference between the use of chaos theory in physics and in economics.

Commentary

The paper is a very brief but comprehensive presentation of certain quantity methods used in market analyses. Although the methods are very sophisticated, while they are applied in practice, the results are very poor. Fortunately the authors acknowledge that.

## Analysis of fractal properties on Polish share market

Tomasz Kałuziak

Prace naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu Nr 1189 / 2007

Summary (according to author)

„This report is the attempt of the verification of a long-term memory of series consisting of logarithmic rate of return expanded by the research of the statistical similarity of time series on the Polish share market. It also tries to answer the questions connected with reasons of receiving dubious and ambiguous results. Showing the existence of real fractals would require a modification of currently accepted hypotheses, with the hypothesis of the effective market at the top of it, and would justify the use of opportunities, coming from the chaos theory in financial analysis. (…)

The research tries to estimate the Hurst coefficient (rescaled range analysis described by E. Peters) as well as the coefficient of statistical similarity (suggested by M. Zwolankowska).

Looking at the Polish share market one can clearly see the difference between the research of opportunities of the use of deterministic chaos in exact science, and economy which is a set of many currents and disciplines of science. (…) Some estimated values and signals may prove the potential existence of fractal properties but others contradicts it.”

Commentary

Methodologically the research seems to be very correct. We can hardly find any strong and hidden assumptions regarding studied share market. On the contrary, the main purpose of the research is to test whether the market can be considered as fractal structure and consequently investigated by the methods appropriate to such a structure. Fractals were indentified for the first time by Mandelbrot who tried to develop the theory on them. Hurst, while studying the behavior of Nil river throughout several centuries, discovered that changes in its level do not follows the normal, statistical distribution. He worked out the mathematical tool, which can be used in order to verify whether the particular time series follow such a normal distribution (what points on its purely accidental character) or tend to prefer some of the results (what suggest that their occurrence are not accidental, and that some other hidden regularity may lie behind the pattern). One of regularity, that may be taken into account is a fractal structure. If we establish that Hurst’s exponent exceeds certain value (0,5) then we may assume that investigated series are not purely accidental. However obtained results are dubious and ambiguous.