Archive for ‘Entries and Papers in English’

14/02/2012

Normativity according to Hayek

Herein you will find the text for the next seminar on Friday. The text is a ‘working paper’ . It lacks complete footnotes and the language requires to be reviewed and corrected. Please note that it is my first text in English:)

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13/01/2012

Comments on Wojciech Załuski’s paper ‘On the Applicability of Evolutionary Anthropology in Legal and Moral Philosophy’

1. In his characteristically lucid and skillfully grounded paper Wojciech claims (1) that evolutionary anthropology (understood as a nontrivial view of human nature mainly based on evolutionary psychology) can be used fruitfully in the analysis of some questions of legal philosophy, and (2) that the relevance of evolutionary anthropology for moral philosophy is very limited. These claims strike one as being quite counterintuitive: after all, the issue of how natural selection has shaped our sense of morality, moral behavior, and moral intuitions is a rather heatedly debated topic, at least among philosophers and evolutionary psychologists. The prevailing view on this problem is that homo sapiens possesses at least a minimal innate moral competence, which is of an evolutionary origin. On the other hand, positive law, conferred by an act of legislation, seems to be of a much more conventional nature than morality. It follows that our sense of legality, legal behavior, and legal intuitions do not rest upon some hard-wired dispositions shaped by evolution. They seem to be influenced by the necessity to resolve in an efficient way some important issues which were absent in ancestral environments (e.g. legitimacy of state coercion, limitations of public power, contractual obligations).

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30/12/2011

Office Hours with Walter Sinnott-Armstrong on Neuroscience in the Law

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31/10/2011

Mark A. Rothstein, J.D., Behavioral Genetic Determinism. Its Effects on Culture and Law [in:] R.A. Carson, M.A. Rothstein (ed.), Behavioral Genetics – The Clash of Culture and Biology, The Johns Hopkins University Press 1999, pp. 90-115

You can find a short review of the paper Mark A. Rothstein, J.D., Behavioral Genetic Determinism. Its Effects on Culture and Law here.

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31/03/2011

What difference representaion

Zamieściłem omówienie badań przeprowadzonych na Havardzie a dotyczących skuteczności pomocy prawnej: What difference representation. Gdyby ktoś był zainteresowany to umieszczam również  (What Difference Representation) oryginalny raport z tychże badań. Jest on jednak dość obszerny.

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05/12/2010

Lukasz Lazarz Emotions Worth Good Beauty

LLazarz emotions worth good beauty

Instead of usual txt hereby I attach a presentation aiming at throwing light on crucial concepts of Emotions, Worth, Good, Beauty (till now reserved for old fashioned philosophy) from point of contact of AI and cognitive psychology (cognitive architectures). In the first pages I put the plan of presentation which might be helpful in understanding of the particular slides. LL.

27/11/2010

Obrona antynaturalizmu. Wokół myśli F.A. Hayeka

Zgodnie z ustaleniami z ostatniego spotkania przedstawiam kompletną (prawie) wersję Obrona antynaturalizmu. Wokol mysli F.A. Hayeka Brakuje w niej, tak jak sygnalizowałem jednego rozdziału który jest zaznaczony w środku wraz z jego planem. za tydzień nie będę mógł się bronić przed waszymi zarzutami – dopiero za dwa tygodnie. Plan był taki, aby skupić się na rozdziale poświęconym wyjaśnieniu naukowym.

Po ostatniej dyskusji mam kilka przemyśleń, z którymi poniżej chciałbym się podzielić:

1. Sądzę, że w rozdziale pierwszym niepotrzebnie zasygnalizowałem że będę wspierał model DN wyjaśnienia naukowego wg Hempla. Nie jest to do końca prawda. Z modelu tego biorę tak na prawdę tylko dwa elementy:

– to, że wyjaśnienie jest w istocie szczególnym przypadkiem rozumowanie, co jest w istotnej opozycji do modeli realistycznych wskazująch na to, że wyjaśnienia polega na przedstawienie łańcucha przyczyn;

– to, że istotne elementem tego rozumowania jest wskazanie jakieś uchwyconej prawidłowości występującej w wyjaśnianym fenomenie – nazwanie tej prawidłowości prawem natury / ananke może być co nieco mylące;

2. W pozostałym zakresie model jest uzupełniany przez myśl Hayeka i Groblera; Hayeka w tej części w której uznaje on, że wyjaśnienie to nic innego jak modelowanie; A Groblera w tej części w której proponuje on kryterium rozrozniania mocy wyjasniającej hipotez;

3. Odnosząc się zaś wprost do pytania (Radek i Bratek) czy teoria, której falsyfikowalność jest znikoma będzie naukowym wyjaśnieniem? Tak, będzie – nawet jeśli jej falsyfikowlaność będzie zerowa. Tyle, że może być marnym wyjaśnieniem. Każda inna, która wskaże jakiś fakty ja falsyfikujące i pozowoli tym samym na odpowiedź na większą liczbę problemów, będzie miała większą moc wyjaśniającą.

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18/06/2010

Pei Wang “From Inheritance relation to Non Axiomatic Logic”. [International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 11(4), 281-319, 1994]

Text:
Pei Wang “From Inheritance relation to Non Axiomatic Logic”. [International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, 11(4), 281-319, 1994]

Abstract:
At the beginning of the paper, three binary term logics are defined. The first is based only on inheritance relation. This relation refers to weights between nodes of semantic network (terms). As author says the second and the third logics suggest a new way to process extension and intension. They have also interesting relations with Aristotle’s logic.
Based on the three simple systems a Non Axiomatic Logic is defined. It has term oriented language and an experience grounded semantics. It can uniformly represents and processes randomness, fuzziness and ignorance. It can also uniformly carries out deduction, abduction, induction and revision.

Commentary:
The proposed paper is a good start for Pei Wang works relating to cognitive logic. Cognitive logic claims to be an underlying logic for reasoning resulting from physical properties of neural networks (human mind). The work and underlying idea of Wang’s papers is an interesting piece which may be an important contribution for many methodology issues, like normative methodology. The paper may be helpful for understanding why the axiomatic logic seems to be a good methodology for normative disciplines however we have many problems with its adaptation.

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08/06/2010

Chaos theory in financial time series analysis – theoretical aspects and empirical researches

Krzysztof Jajuga, Daniel Papla
Dynamiczne Modele Ekonometryczne
V Ogólnopolskie Seminarium Naukowe, 9-11 września 1997 r. w Toruniu
Katedra Ekonometrii i Statystyki, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
Summary
In his post-conference paper authors present the basic assumptions and methods of chaos theory that can be possibly used in market analyses. At first they place those methods among others quantity methods which have been worked out due to predict the certain market variables like price of commodities. Those are: technical analysis, stochastic methods, methods of financial cybernetic, econometric methods and chaos theory. The common feature of those methods is the abortion of the effective market hypothesis. In other words, they assume that the information of the past prices do not affect the present value.
The authors describe briefly what is deterministic chaos and what sort of mathematical methods of that theory can be applied to market analysis. Two of them are presented in details. Those are: correlative dimension and Hurst’s exponent.
At the end both methods are applied to the share prices on the Polish stock exchange within 1994 – 97. The results are ambiguous. It may suggest that there exists no attractor, what is the necessary condition to make the accurate predictions, or that the set of data is not rich enough.
They conclude that the example of stock exchange shows clearly the difference between the use of chaos theory in physics and in economics.
Commentary
The paper is a very brief but comprehensive presentation of certain quantity methods used in market analyses. Although the methods are very sophisticated, while they are applied in practice, the results are very poor. Fortunately the authors acknowledge that.

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08/06/2010

Analysis of fractal properties on Polish share market

Tomasz Kałuziak
Prace naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu Nr 1189 / 2007
Summary (according to author)
„This report is the attempt of the verification of a long-term memory of series consisting of logarithmic rate of return expanded by the research of the statistical similarity of time series on the Polish share market. It also tries to answer the questions connected with reasons of receiving dubious and ambiguous results. Showing the existence of real fractals would require a modification of currently accepted hypotheses, with the hypothesis of the effective market at the top of it, and would justify the use of opportunities, coming from the chaos theory in financial analysis. (…)
The research tries to estimate the Hurst coefficient (rescaled range analysis described by E. Peters) as well as the coefficient of statistical similarity (suggested by M. Zwolankowska).
Looking at the Polish share market one can clearly see the difference between the research of opportunities of the use of deterministic chaos in exact science, and economy which is a set of many currents and disciplines of science. (…) Some estimated values and signals may prove the potential existence of fractal properties but others contradicts it.”
Commentary
Methodologically the research seems to be very correct. We can hardly find any strong and hidden assumptions regarding studied share market. On the contrary, the main purpose of the research is to test whether the market can be considered as fractal structure and consequently investigated by the methods appropriate to such a structure. Fractals were indentified for the first time by Mandelbrot who tried to develop the theory on them. Hurst, while studying the behavior of Nil river throughout several centuries, discovered that changes in its level do not follows the normal, statistical distribution. He worked out the mathematical tool, which can be used in order to verify whether the particular time series follow such a normal distribution (what points on its purely accidental character) or tend to prefer some of the results (what suggest that their occurrence are not accidental, and that some other hidden regularity may lie behind the pattern). One of regularity, that may be taken into account is a fractal structure. If we establish that Hurst’s exponent exceeds certain value (0,5) then we may assume that investigated series are not purely accidental. However obtained results are dubious and ambiguous.

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